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Algilez International Language Grammar Next Page

 




The main features of Algilez
1

1. Introduction
8

1.1 International Conventions
8

1.2 This Grammar Guide
8

1.3 Further Information
8

2. Pronunciation
9

2.1 Algilez Alphabet Pronunciation
9

2.2 Grammatical and Punctuation Symbols
10

2.3 International Phonetic Alphabet
10

3. Word Order
11

3.1 Subject-Verb-Direct Object-Preposition-Indirect Object
11

3.2 Normal word order, Subject-Verb-Object, 'Active' Subject:
11

3.3 Alternative word order, 'Passive' Subject.
11

3.4 Adjectives and Adverbs
11

3.5 Prepositions and Conjunctions
11

3.6 Word Order Guidance - normal sentence
11

3.7 Word Order Guidance - passive object
12

3.8 Word Order Guidance - passive subject
12

3.9 Other Word Order Examples
12

3.10 Sentence Structure
13

4. Vocabulary
14

4.1 Classification
14

4.2 International Standards
15

4.3 Condensed English
15

4.4 Root Words
15

4.5 Single letter root words
16

4.6 Vowel and Consonant Clusters
17

4.7 Pronunciation and sylable stress
17

4.8 Algilez Vocabulary
17

4.9 Algilez vocabulary development
17

5. Nouns
18

5.1 General Rules and Kinds of Noun
18

5.2 Affixes can be added to any word -
18

5.3 Turning Root Words into nouns
18

5.4 A noun (Tom) can function as -
18

5.5 Plurals
18

5.6 Pronouns
18

5.7 'It is', 'that is', 'this is' etc.
20

5.8 There is, there are etc
20

5.9 Noun Affixes
21

5.10 Compound Words
23

5.11 Gender and Family
24

5.12 Participle-nouns
24

5.13 Changes to the meanings of words
24

6. Adjectives
26

6.1 Quality (e.g. size, age, shape, colour, material etc) - suffix 'a', follows noun
26

6.2 Multiple adjectives
26

6.3 Modified adjectives
26

6.4 Origin - suffix 'da' or 'a' follow s noun
26

6.5 Purpose - suffix 'ya' follows noun
26

6.6 Active/Participles (suffix 'a', follows noun)
26

6.7 Possessive
27

6.8 Examples, including 'nested' possessives
27

6.9 Plural possessives
27

6.10 False possessives
28

6.11 Different types of possessives
28

6.12 More precise use of words in Algilez
28

6.13 Comparative (suffix or preposition)
29

6.14 The Indefinite Article 'a' - Not Used
30

6.15 The Definite Article 'the' - Not Used
30

6.16 Demonstrative (preposition)
30

6.17 Distributive (preposition)
31

6.18 Distributive (preposition/prefix)
31

6.19 Quantitative (prefix)
31

6.20 Multiple Adjectives and Participles
31

7. Verbs
33

7.1 General Rules
33

7.2 Examples:
33

7.3 Passive Case
34

7.4 Transitive and Intransitive verbs
34

7.5 Alternative Passive Forms
35

7.6 Transitional Verbs
36

7.7 Stative verbs
37

7.8 Understanding the 'to' and 'ing' forms of English verbs
37

7.9 Double and Triple Verb Groups
37

7.10 Possessive - To Have (Roget 773)
38

7.11 Other meaning of 'to have'
39

7.12 Common Verb Affixes
39

7.13 Requirements and Obligations - Ought, Should, Must, Need, Best to, etc
41

7.14 Wishes and intentions - Wish, want, intend to, etc
42

7.15 Phrasal Verbs
42

7.16 Causative Verbs
43

7.17 Aspect
44

7.18 Affixes related to Aspect -
44

7.19 The verb 'to be/exist' (biz, boz, bez, buz)
47

8. Adverbs
48

8.1 Formation of adverbs
48

8.2 Manner, place, time, frequency (some of these may also be treated as prepositions. See Section 11)
48

8.3 Sentence adverbs
48

8.4 Degree
48

8.5 Stative - This refers to the state or condition of a person or thing
49

8.6 Multiple adverbs and adverbial phrases
49

8.7 Passive case for adverbs
50

8.8 Adverbial participles
50

8.9 Negating adverbs
50

9. Tenses
51

9.1 General Rules
51

9.2 Table of Tenses (Note -*** =verb)
51

9.3 The perfect/intentional marker
51

9.4 Note also that the basic meanings of 'o', 'e' 'u' and 'i' remain the same e.g.:
52

9.5 Past Tenses - Simple, Completed, Intended and Continuous
52

9.6 Present Tenses - Simple and Continuous
52

9.7 Future Tenses - Simple, Completed, Intended and Continuous
53

9.8 Implications of using different nouns and pronouns with the future tense
53

9.9 See also Time Prepositions in Section 11 for further examples
53

10. Conditional and Hypothetical
54

10.1 English Conditionals
54

10.2 Algilez Condition Possible
54

10.3 Algilez Condition hypothetical
55

11. Prepositions and Conjunctions
56

11.1 General Prepositions
56

11.2 Place
58

11.3 Travel and Movement
59

11.4 Measurement
59

11.5 Relative Position
59

Basic uses of 'o', 'u', 'e' and in:
60

11.6 Examples
60

11.7 Use of at, on, in etc (e, on, in)
60

11.8 Time
61

11.9 Examples
61

11.10 Frequency (occasion)
62

11.11 Translating the English Word 'of'
62

12. Numbers and mathematical symbols
64

12.1 Numbers (Cardinal Numbers) Numbers precede nouns.
64

12.2 Large Numbers (e.g. billions,trillions etc)
64

12.3 Collective, Fraction, Multiples etc
64

12.4 Mathematical Symbols
64

13. Interrogatives/Questions/Queries
65

13.1 General Rules K = Ke (query)
65

13.2 Main Question Words
65

13.3 Examples (remember that k=ke)
65

13.4 Understanding the variations of meaning of different questions
67

13.5 Other Common Question Forms
67

13.6 Alternative Question Forms
67

13.7 Interrogative Verb Forms
68

13.8 'To ask if /whether .'
68

13.9 Tag questions
68

13.10 Shortcut questions - beware of missing out a question word after 'K'
69

13.11 Intermediate question words - what, where, who etc in the middle of sentences
69

14. Requests and Orders (Imperatives/Instructions) please and thank you
70

14.1 Questions, requests and orders - what are the differences
70

14.2 Requests
70

14.3 Orders (Imperatives/Instructions)
70

14.4 Suggestions for action, using 'le' (let, allow) plus present or future tense followed by ' mi' or 'wi'
71

14.5 Thank you, You're welcome etc
71

15. Negatives and Opposites
72

15.1 Negation - no and not
72

15.2 Other forms of negation and opposites
72

15.3 Using two negatives in a sentence
73

15.4 Answers to negative questions
73

16. Direct and Indirect Reported Speech
74

17. Relative clauses and relative pronouns
75

17.1 Relative clauses and relative pronouns 'xa' and 'ca'
75

17.2 Non-defining relative clauses - usually with 'xa'.
75

17.3 Preffixes to 'xa / ca' e.g. 'avxa', 'oxa', 'vekxa', 'abxa' etc
75

17.4 Replacing a relative clause with an infinitive or participle
75

17.5 Omission of relative pronouns
76

18. Greetings, Weather, Names and Titles etc
77

18.1 Greetings and weather
77

18.2 Names and Titles
77

19. Dates, Times, Ages, Weights and Measures
78

19.1 Days and Weeks
78

19.2 Months
78

19.3 Dates and Times
78

19.4 Ages
79

19.5 Quantities and Measures
79

19.6 Other quantities and measures, speeds etc
79

20. Countries, Nationalities and Languages
80

20.1 Countries
80

20.2 Nationalities
80

21. Other Grammatical Forms
81

21.1 Object Predicate
81

21.2 Gerund
81

22. Alternative Word Orders
82

22.19 Yet more alternatives
85

22.20 Topicalisation
85

22.21 Sentence (preposition) Adverbs
86

23. Example Texts
87

23.1 Babel Text - from Genesis 11, 1-9
87

23.2 The Lords Prayer
87

24. Correlatives
88